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Introduction

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Water Pollution

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wpe2.jpg (13378 bytes)Water quality is monitored at 60 monitoring stations by the Hydro-metereological Institute. 29 parametres are checked and water is classified into 4 categories. Ground waters are polluted mainly because of untreated undustrial and household waste. The following cities are treated as pollutants: Gostivar, Tetovo, Kumanovo, Skopje, Veles, Stip, Negotino, Demir Kapija and Gevgelija as well as 132 industrial plants. As a result, certain metals (chroma, steel, cadmium, lead and zinc) can be found in the rivers Vardar in the vicinity of Jegunovce, Bistrica, Lepenec, Pcinja, Kumanovo River, Bregalnica near Krupiste and Zletovo River. Industry is not performing at its peek in the last few years, yet water quaility in some parts of the rivers is still low because of the solid particles from the waste and heavy metals as is the case with River Bregalnica. Most of the drinking water is from the non-polluted mountain springs and sources. However, now and again, bacteria, nitrates and ammonia can be detected in the villages. Toxins have been found in the underground waters in the valley of Skopje (Dracevo and near the oil rafinery), however the wells are not used for drinking water. Irrigational water is of a satisfactory quality and very rarely do we use water of III and IV category.

 

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In addition, waters are polluted by discharging manure which is especially frequent in the north-eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. There are discharges from farms, slaughterhouses, diary plants, meat plants and food processing plants. The rivers where such waste is discharged are: Bregalnica, Pcinja, Mavrovica, Zletovska Reka, Berovska Reka etc. Especially hazardous is the waste from the metalurgic and chemical industry, especially if we bear in mind the fact that only a small proportion of the waters are treated. Actually, only 53% of the 21 million m3 metalurgic and chemical industry waters are treated. From the total quantity industrial waste waters (420 million m3) only 6% is treated. On the other hand, waste water treatment is performed with out-dated and inefficient technology in a limited number of facilities. Thus, there are only three waste water treatment facilities. Sewage untreated waste water can be found in River Dragor in Bitola, Kumanovo River in Kumanovo, Crna Reka in Bitola, River Kiselicka in Probistip, River Kicevo in Kicevo, River Vardar in Tetovo, Skopje and Veles, and River Bregalnica in Kocani and Stip. The most polluted rivers are: River Vardar after Skopje and Veles, Bregalnica after Kocani, Pcinja after Kumanovo, Crna Reka and Dragor after Bitola and River Zletovo after Zletovo and Probistip. Main pollutants are urban sewage systems and industrial plants.

 

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Industrial Impact (in 1000 m3 )

Industry

Treated

Untreated

Percentage of treatment %

Power Management

10.1

236.4

5

Metalurgy

10.3

61.3

14

Mining

2.5

3.2

44

Other

3.6

92.4

3

Total

26.5

393

6

 

Pollution of rivers


Basin area

Quantity of waste waters(m3/day)

Suspended substances (kg/day)

Nitrogen
(g/day)

Phosphorus
(g/day)

Vardar

265.557

193.974

13.064

2.374

Strumica

10.616

9.168

618

111

Crn Drim

17.221

15.167

1.022

184

Total

293.394

218.309

14.702

2.642

 

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