Metal Age brought change in the ceramics production technique which, in turn, reflected on their form. In the Eneolith, particularly characteristic were pots with inwardly curved brims, and goblets with two handles, usually decorated with ornaments carved in raw clay (particularly common is the ribbon-like carved ornament). Less frequent within the territory of Macedonia was the encrustation technique that consisted of grooves carved in the ceramics (usually of dark colour), filled with light pasting colour. With certain changes, also the technique of colouring ceramics was still in use, where ornaments were made by applying fading pasting colours (especially red and white) on baked pots. Particularly specific for this period is the colouring with lead coating that gives the pots an extraordinary metallic shine.
During the Bronze Age the ceramic shapes were flourishing again. Bi-cone pots emerged - pots with one or two handles, usually raising high above the typically highly notched brim. Also for the first time pots - lamps designed for lightening appeared. Ceramic painting was usually made by applying dark colour on previously well-polished light brown or reddish surface. The most common were the ornaments in the shapes of vertically carved triangles, rhombi, Maltese crosses, and stylized human figures. These motifs were particularly common on the ceramic urns (designated for the burial of the cremated dead's relics) that continued to exist in the subsequent eras.
During the Iron Age, influenced by the Mediterranean civilizations, people begun making pots on the potter's wheel, and the outcome was more uniformed and thinner pots. Colouring was carried out by applying the so-called varnish (very durable colour, made up of iron oxide diluted in linseed oil) that turned brown-reddish after baking. Motifs were geometrical. Dominating were the shapes of jugs, goblets, and cups. Alongside these new forms and techniques, however, pots will be hand-made and ornamented with old techniques for many centuries that follow.
Even though this was an epoch of metals, during its early stage metal objects were extremely rare. This will not significantly change even in the Bronze Age when, owing to the alloying of copper and bronze, in the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, apart from the renowned Mycenaean dagger, until now only few bronze axes have been excavated. These were found in the sites of "Sv. Nedela" in Asamati near Resen, in Kravari near Bitola, in "Crkveni livadi" near Vranista in the Struga region, and in the region of Prilep. In addition, within our territories a stone matrix for molding of such tools was discovered, proving that in this part of the Balkans also the skill of their manufacturing was known.
In spite of the knowledge of the metallurgy techniques, throughout this age the majority of tools and weapons were made in the same manner as in the Neolith - of stone and bone. Among them are: flint blades and arrows; massive stone axes and hammer-like tools (with circular opening for inserting handle), awls, pins, bone and horn arrows and harpoons for fishing, etc.
Within our territory samples of metal jewelry (made of copper and bronze) emerged later, in the Iron Age. However, they are numerous and diversified.
In the Iron Age, unlike the Neolith, people in this part of the Balkans were leaving numerous contributions in graves. Majority of them were elements of the clothes, i.e., the costume of the dead. Although there are some uncertainties in relation to different chronological or territorial specifics of the objects, it is possible to reconstruct the shape of an adult male - a warrior of that period.
The cloak he was wearing was fastened by a fibula (a decorative pin similar to our safety pins), which varied in different periods and in different tribes. Its ornamental section was either arch-shaped or consisted of two linked spirals. Around his throat and on his clothes various pendants were hanging (ball-shaped, bi-cone, ringlike, platelike or bell-shaped, usually with geometric symbols). The shirt was encircled with a waistbelt, sometimes fastened in front with a massive platelet ornamented with perforation. Hanging on the belt was a set for hair and beard care that consisted of some kind of pincers, i.e., a pin for holding locks, then an iron razor for trimming, and a lathe for sharpening the blade. It is believed that this set, in addition to its practical purpose, also functioned as a symbol of the social standing of its owner. In some graves, in the chest and stomach areas of the dead numerous semi-spherical, profiled metal platelets were discovered. These were either elements sewn to the clothes, or some kind of metal buckles, or perhaps parts of a shield made of wood and leather. The common weapon was spear, usually paired, whereas the rare presence of daggers in the graves may be related to their high price; thus only the most celebrated warriors own them, and after their death the daggers were inherited.
On the account of the weapons, with females more frequent are jewels and, apparently, tools for textile manufacturing. In addition to the universal elements (fibulae, appliqués on garments, pendants...), dominating are also bracelets (usually in the shape of long spirals and massive chain links), and pins with decorative heads for fastening hair and clothes.