Method of production and embroidery techniques

materijaliMaterials

 

koloritcolor spectrum

 

tehnikitechniques

 

prilog: pregled i ilustracija na vezbenite tehniki

Attachment: An overview and illustrations of embroidery techniques

The textile materials used for the production of parts of the costume decorated with embroidery apart from cotton, which was harvested in Macedonia for a long time, linen and thread, old industrial cultures. Herod mentions that the Thraceans made their clothes of thread. The use of linen and thread was likewise familiar to the Ancient Slav. In the 10th century, linen was exported to Constantinopol from Strumitsa. Even today, villages carry their names, which is indicates of the presence of these cultures. On the other hand not only are the oldest embroidery exemplars made of a linen or thread fabric, but also individual embroideries distinctively require the use of linen because of their technique such as the azhuren embroidery chikme in Polog. In the case of the Ohrid Plain the white embroideries chikminya applied on the shirts until recently where made of linen threads.

Furthermore, the technology of preparing the materials for embroidery contains traditional marks that most probably date far back in the past. For example, until recently the following was applied in Macedonian embroidery; podavani and pushteni threads, handmade sukani and prisukuvani (spun) threads. Two females regularly prepared these. Likewise, it indicates the use of one of the very first methods of preparing threads kept until the present day.

Woolen thread was used in the embroidery that was conditioned by the once advanced stock breeding in Macedonia and were prepared at home in the traditional manner made if the finest wool (kadelka). Besides wool silk thread were used especially in the embroidery of the costumes for religious observances. Some parts of Macedonia were familiar with the process nurturing the silk bug. In most cases the sokay, ubrus, and bandanas were made of silk. The shirts with silk embroidery were kept the longest in Polog, Debar, Malesia, the Ohrid Plain, Upper Prespa and Mariovo. In most cases glitter décor was more or less present in the embroidery especially in Skopska Blatia, Polog, Poreche, the Prilep and Bitola Plain and others. At the beginning of this century ready to buy woolen thread was available – fanelki (Kichevija), pregiche or od kamila v'na (camel hair) (Polog) and others.

The application of variegated threads dyed in natural colors is characteristic of older Macedonian embroidery. This method was also known to the ancient Slavs, not to mention the use of brok, a substance used to achieve the red color most frequently applied in Macedonian embroidery. Its application originates from the South Slavs and its was broadly used in Macedonia until recently supported by word of mouth traditions. On the other hand, the various technology procedures in the dying process kept many elements of the primitive dying methods particularly dying the embroidery wool in a bunishte applied in Macedonia until recently.

Another substantial distinction of the Macedonian national embroidery is its polychromatic nature even though the recognition of more tones of a color within the frames of a specific region is not particularly present. The red color dominates in the Macedonian embroidery, which is particularly present in the Miyatsi embroidery, the Prilep and Bitola Plains, Mariovo and others. The orange color is typical for the Debar Drimkol region. The black color is the second most applied color besides the red, which prevails in the embroidery of Skopska Crna Gora and Dolni Polog (Lower Polog). The yellow, modro (a dark shade) and green colors are used as color effects in combination with the two primary colors. The yellow color is especially characteristic for Kichevija and Zheleznik.

The change of colors occurred primarily because of the industrial colors that appeared towards the end of the 19th century. The same induced major changes in the regional distinctions of the Macedonian embroidery. For example, the once dark red embroidery from the Prilep and Bitola Plain made with old dark red staro alovno – Prilep (77, 79, 80) transformed into a bitolsko alovno (76, 78), in Zheleznik instead of the zholto polyansko (red) the zholto gornoselsko (a kind of lemon color), in the Skopje Valley – topsko zholto and so on. These changes again reveal the connection between the embroidery ornamentation and various regions in Macedonia.

Another characteristic feature of the Macedonian embroidery is the volume (their density) of the embroidered surfaces, in which case not only the embroidered ornaments are filled with the necessary colors, but the base (fon) as well. Sometimes the parts that remain white on the base (fon) (not embroidered) serve as ornaments or their contours. Other times the actual fabric serves as a base for the motifs although this is not very often. The warp threads are counted on the reverse side of the fabric for the embroidery.

The technique that is most applied is the so-called polnezh (filling up) which is applied and familiar throughout Macedonia. First of all the contours of the ornaments are set with a thin black thread ( tsrni (black), lozi (vines), ora (a national dance), brazdi, snove, veze and so on). These are then filled in with variegated wool, silk and glitter décor. It is typical for Macedonian embroidery to have the notches all in one direction. Exceptions to this is the embroidery from Kumanovo, Skopska Blatia and partially from Polog.

Another technique that is most frequently applied is podlachno, sokaechko, klashnechko and similar which show more variety of embroidery methods. Almost all of the Macedonian sokay are made in this technique.

The crosses, as a basic technique, are only present in the Lerin Plain, Kichevija and Poreche and in more recent times the Radovish Plain. Otherwise, they are present in more or less all of the Macedonian embroidery.

Specific regions have specific basic techniques. Such is the case with the azhuren embroidery kinatitsa, the Debar azhur kesme, the techniques of Skopska Gora and Dolni Polog (Lower Polog), skortsite of the Debar Drimkol and nofteno of the Struga Plain, pisani and grabeni vezovi of the Prilep and Bitola Plain and Mariovo and others. The Miyatsi embroidery is particularly interesting. As it is one of the most preserved costumes it possesses many features of the old cultural traditions. The population of several Miyatsi oasis – the village Oreshe and Papradishte (Babuna), Smilevo (Zheleznik) and Ehloets (Kichevija) kept the authenticity of their opulently embroidered costume intact. They had migrated from their native region Mala Reka in the 18th century.

White embroidery is typical for the lower part of some female shirts. It is primarily made in the technique azhurna in the function of hem known as chikminya (Miyatsi, the Debar and Struga Drimkol, the Ohrid Plain, Upper and Lower Prespa and the Lerin River).

Od tekstilnite materijali {to slu`ele za izrabotka na delovite od nosijata ukraseni so vez pokraj pamukot, koj odamna se proizveduval vo Makedonija, nekoga{ bile lenot i konopot, poznati kako stari industriski kulturi. Herodot spomenuva deka i Trakijcite ja prigotvuvale svojata obleka od konop. a za upotrebata na len i konop znaele i starite Sloveni. Vo X vek od strumi~kiot kraj se iznesuvalo leneno platno za Carigrad, a i denes vo Makedonija postojat sela, ~ii{to imiwa svedo~at za nekoga{noto odgleduvawe na ovie stari industriski kulturi. Od druga strana, ne samo {to najstarite vezeni primeroci se raboteni na leneno ili na konopeno platno, tuku izvesni vezovi i posebno barale lenen materijal poradi pojakite ni{ki, kako a`urniot vez "~ikme" vo Polog, dodeka vo Ohridsko Pole belite vezeni "~ikmiwa" po ko{ulite do neodamna se izrabotuvale so leneni konci.

Ponatamu i samata tehnologija okolu prigotvuvaweto na materijalite za vezewe sodr`i vidni tradiconalni obele`ja {to poteknuvaat najverojatno od podale~noto minato. Taka, na pr., karakteristi~no e deka skoro vo cela Makedonija do neodamna se upotrebuvale za vezewe t.n. "podavani" ili "pu{tani" konci, sukani i prisukuvani samo so race i bez nikakvi pomagala, koe redovno go pravele po dve devojki, a koe od druga strana uka`uva na eden od najprvobitnite na~ini za dobivawe konci {to se odr`al do denes.

Za vezewe naj~esto se upotrebuvale volneni konci, {to bilo usloveno i od razvienoto sto~arstvo nekoga{ vo Makedonija, a se prigotvuvale na doma{en, tradicionalen na~in od najkvalitetnata volna ("kadelka"). Pokraj volnata, osobeno za prazni~nite obleki, za vezewe bile vo upotreba i svileni konci, a vo nekoi krai{ta vo Makedonija bilo poznato i doma{noto odgleduvawe na svilena buba. Naj~esto bile vezeni so svila sokaite, ubrusite i maramite, a ko{uli so svilen vez najdolgo se odr`ale vo Polog, Debar, Malesija, Ohridsko Pole, Gorna Prespa i Mariovo. Skoro nasekade pove}e ili pomalku vo vezot bila zastapena i srma, osobeno vo Skopska Blatija, Polog, Pore~e, Prilepsko-bitolsko Pole i dr. Od po~etokot na ovoj vek nekade navlegle vo upotreba kupe~ki volneni konci - "fanelki" (Ki~evija), "pre|i~e" ili "od kamila v'lna" (Polog) i dr.

Karakteristi~no za postarite makedonski vezovi e upotrebata na konci oboeni so prirodni sredstva za boewe, poznati u{te na starite Sloveni. Da spomeneme samo deka upotrebata na bro} za dobivawe crvena boja kako najzastapena vo makedonskite vezovi, a ~ija upotreba kaj Ju`nite Sloveni poteknuva u{te od vremeto na nivnata zaednica, doskoro bila {iroko rasprostraneta niz cela Makedonija, koe go potvrduvaat i usnite tradicii. Od druga strana, raznite tehnolo{ki postapki pri narodnoto boewe za~uvale mnogu elementi od primitivnite na~ini na boewe, me|u koi e i osobeno staroto boewe volna za vezewe vo buni{te, do neodamna poznato skoro vo cela Makedonija.

Me|u bitnite odliki na makedonskiot naroden vez e i negovata polihromnost, iako poznavaweto na pove}e tonovi od ista boja, vo granicite na oddelnite oblasti, ne e osobeno zastapeno. Vo koloritot na makedonskite vezovi dominira crvenata boja, koja e osobeno karakteristi~na za mija~kiot vez, vo Prilepsko-bitolsko Pole, Mariovo i dr. Za Debarski Drimkol najtipi~na e portokalovata boja. Pokraj crvenata, najmnogu e zastapena crnata boja, koja e dominantna za vezovite od Skopska Crna Gora i Dolni Polog. Vo kombinacija so ovie dve boi mo{ne ~esto se zastapeni u{te `olto, modro i zeleno, samo kako koloristi~ni efekti. Posebno karakteristi~na e `oltata boja za vezovite, od Ki~evija i @eleznik.

Promenite vo koloritot, koi nastanale glavno poradi upotrebata na industriski boi od krajot na XIX vek, uslovile pogolemi promeni i vo regionalnite specifi~nosti na makedonskite vezovi. Taka na pr., nekoga{nite "alovni vezovi" od Prilepsko-bitolsko Pole izrabotuvani so "staro alovno" - "Prilepsko" (77, 79, 80), se promenile so ("bitolsko alovno" (76, 78), vo @eleznik, namesto "`olto poljansko" (crveno), vleglo vo upotreba "`olto gornoselsko" (limonovo), vo Skopska Kotlina - "topsko `olto" itn. Ovie promeni, od svoja strana, uka`uvaat u{te edna{ na karakterot na me|usebnite vrski vo vezbenata ornamentika na oddelnite predelski celini vo Makedonija.

Karakteristi~na osobenost na makedonskiot vez mu davaat i gusto izvezenite povr{ini, taka {to se ispolnuvaat vo soodvetni boi ne samo ornamentite, tuku i samiot fon. Ponekoga{ beli neizvezeni delovi od fonot gi formiraat ornamentite ili samo nivnite konturi, a poretko za fon na motivite slu`i samoto belo platno. Site vezovi se raboteni so broewe vdol` `icite od platnoto i naj~esto od opa~nata strana.

Najzastapenata tehnika e t.n. "polne`" (goblenska tehnika, kosi bod). Skoro nema kraj vo Makedonija kade ovaa karakteristi~na tehnika za makedonskiot vez, makar i so nezna~itelni lokalni raznovidnosti, ne e poznata. Najprvo so tenok crn, poretko raznooboen konec se obele`uvaat konturite na ornamentite (se "crni", "lozi", "ora", "brazdi", "snove", "veze" i t.n.), a potoa se polnat so raznobojna volna, svila ili srma. Karakteristi~no e za makedonskite polneti vezovi i bodovite da se pru`aat sè vo eden pravec, pri {to isklu~ok pravat samo vezovite od Kumanovsko, Skopska Blatija i, delumno, od Polog.

Me|u najzastapenite tehniki spa|aat i onie so pravi bodovi - "podla~no", "sokae~ko", "kla{ne~ko" i sl. koi poka`uvaat ne{to pogolemi raznovidnosti vo na~inot na vezeweto. Karakteristi~no e deka so ovaa tehnika se vezeni skoro site makedonski sokai.

Krv~iwata, kako osnovna tehnika, se zastapeni samo vo vezovite od Lerinsko Pole, Ki~evija i Pore~e, a vo ponovo vreme i vo Radovi{ko Pole. Inaku, nivnata primena, makar i vo ograni~ena mera, se zabele`uva skoro vo site makedonski vezovi.

Izvesni tehniki kako osnovni se ograni~eni samo na nekoi oblasti, kako mija~kiot a`uren vez "kinatica", debarskiot a`ur "kesme", reljefnite tehniki od Skopska Crna Gora i Dolni Polog, "skorcite" od Debarski Drimkol i "nofteno" od Stru{ko Pole, "pisani" i"grabeni vezovi"od Prilepsko-bitolsko Pole i Mariovo i dr. Posebno interesen e mija~kiot vez, vo koj mo`eme da barame pove}e elementi na stari kulturni tradicii so ogled na pogolemata za~uvanost na mija~kata nosija. Imeno, naselenieto od nekolku mija~ki oazi - S. Ore{e i Papradi{te (Babuna), Smilevo (@eleznik) i Ehloec (Ki~evija), koe migriralo od svojot mati~en predel Mala Reka u{te vo tekot na XVIII vek, blagodarenie na svojata etni~ka `ilavost, ja za~uvalo do denes svojata bogato vezena nosija skoro vo nepromenet vid, a na ~ie sozdavawe i formirawe u{te pred mija~kite migracii bez somnenie í prethodel eden relativno podolg vremenski period.

Za nekoi `enski ko{uli tipi~ni se belite vezovi vo dolniot del, naj~esto vo a`urna tehnika so funkcija na soedinuva~ki {ev, poznati kako "~ikmiwa" (Mijaci, Debarski i Stru{ki Drimkol, Ohridsko Pole, Gorna i Dolna Prespa i Lerinska Reka).

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